SARA E. COSGROVE, MD, MS, FIDSA, FSHEA, an international leader in antimicrobial stewardship, is one of two recipients of IDSA’s 2014 Oswald Avery Award for Early Achievement. This honor recognizes members or fellows of IDSA age 45 or younger who have demonstrated outstanding achievements in an area of infectious diseases. Dr. Cosgrove is an associate professor of medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the John Hopkins University School of Medicine and in the Department of Epidemiology at the John Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. She is the director of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, a program she has played a key role in developing since 2003, and also an associate hospital epidemiologist. The antimicrobial stewardship program provides oversight of the hospital’s antibiotic approval system, including supervision of pharmacists and infectious diseases fellows regarding antimicrobial selection and dosing. An accomplished investigator, Dr. Cosgrove’s early work with collaborators investigating Staphylococcus aureus infections led to seminal, widely cited articles that have helped set the standard of care and increased the urgency for prevention and treatment of these infections. Her publication demonstrating the nephrotoxicity of low-dose gentamicin for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia received the Emanuel Wolinsky Award for the most outstanding clinical study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases in 2009. As chair of the Gram positive subcommittee of the new National Institutes of Health Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG), she continues her involvement in investigations to maximize prevention and treatment strategies for resistant Gram positive organisms; she is also a member of the steering committee and the mentoring committee for the ARLG. Her contributions have moved the field of antimicrobial stewardship forward in a unique way by examining not only the impact of stewardship but also how these programs can be implemented to achieve lasting, evidence-based prescribing. Dr. Cosgrove’s study of the impact of antimicrobial stewardship across five academic medical centers, published in 2012 in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, was the first multi-center study of its kind and is a model for other researchers. She is the author of over 85 peer-reviewed articles, nearly all of them focused on antibiotic resistance, stewardship, or hospital epidemiology and infection control.Attesting to the high regard with which she is viewed by her peers; Dr. Cosgrove has been invited to speak at multiple plenary sessions, symposia, and meet-the-professor seminars at the leading scientific meetings in the field. She has shared her expertise with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, and other organizations as a member of numerous working groups and committees. Dr. Cosgrove served on the editorial board of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology and was named assistant deputy editor of Clinical Infectious Diseases in 2012. She also edits the Johns Hopkins Hospital Antibiotic Guidelines, published annually and used by Hopkins trainees and other practitioners to stay current on antibiotic use. A former member of the SHEA Board of Trustees, Dr. Cosgrove has served on multiple SHEA and IDSA committees related to antimicrobial stewardship, guidelines, and other topics. After earning a medical degree from Baylor College of Medicine in 1995, Dr. Cosgrove completed internship and residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. She completed an infectious diseases fellowship at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston and earned a Master of Science degree from the Harvard School of Public Health in 2001 before returning to Johns Hopkins.A sought after mentor and teacher of infectious diseases and internal medicine, Dr. Cosgrove was associate program director of the Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program at Johns Hopkins for two years. Several fellows she has mentored have gone on to careers focused on antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. In addition to her many other responsibilities, Dr. Cosgrove attends on the infectious diseases general consult service at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. In recognition of her contributions, which have advanced the field of antimicrobial stewardship, aided efforts to address antimicrobial resistance, and improved patient care, IDSA is proud to honor Dr. Cosgrove with a 2014 Oswald Avery Award for Early Achievement.ROCHELLE P. WALENSKY, MD, MPH, FIDSA, whose work has had a significant impact on national and global policies for HIV screening and treatment, is one of two recipients of IDSA’s 2014 Oswald Avery Award for Early Achievement. Dr. Walensky’s research has changed HIV-related policy, ultimately extending resources to individuals most in need. Published in the New England Journal of Medicine, her 2005 study of the cost-effectiveness of widespread HIV testing demonstrated that routine screening in the general U.S. population was both cost-effective and clinically justified. These findings were instrumental in the decision by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to recommend routine HIV testing for everyone between the ages of 13 and 65. Her 2006 paper in The Journal of Infectious Diseases was the first to clearly demonstrate the extraordinary survival benefit of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in individuals infected with HIV, critical to expanding treatment resources in the U.S.Extending this work globally, Dr. Walensky’s international research collaborations addressed whether these same benefits could be realized in the developing world. Her findings have influenced major policy decisions regarding the timing of ART initiation in these countries. In South Africa, her analysis showing a clear benefit from starting ART earlier than recommended at the time led, in part, to a change in international HIV treatment guidelines to call for earlier HIV treatment in resource-limited settings. The comprehensive modeling tool that Dr. Walensky—a professor of medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School—and her colleagues have developed is now used globally in HIV-related decision analysis and to study the impact and costs of HIV interventions. Her research has underscored the importance of maintaining and expanding U.S. investments in HIV research, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, and related efforts to combat HIV domestically and around the world.Dr. Walensky has been a member of the World Health Organization’s ART Guidelines Committee, is a member of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Panel on ART Guidelines, and is currently chair of the National Institutes of Health Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council. She is co-director of the MGH Medical Practice Evaluation Center and associate director of the Harvard Center for AIDS Research Program in Epidemiology and Outcomes. Dr. Walensky makes time to focus on patient care as well, attending on the inpatient ID service at both MGH and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, where she is also on staff.Dr. Walensky has received several honors for her work, including the 2008 HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) HIV Research Award. In addition, she has been recognized as an effective teacher and mentor with a strong commitment to gender and racial diversity. She is an active member of the Office of Women’s Careers at Massachusetts General Hospital and serves on several committees and task forces devoted to diversity and the status of women at Harvard Medical School.Dr. Walensky earned a medical degree from the John Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1995. She trained in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1995 to 1998 and in infectious disease at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Massachusetts General Hospital combined fellowship program from 1998 to 2001 before joining Harvard Medical School. She also earned a master of public health degree from the Harvard School of Public Health in 2001.For her tremendous impact on global health policy and significant contributions to HIV research, which have benefited the lives of many around the world, IDSA is proud to honor Dr. Walensky with a 2014 Oswald Avery Award for Early Achievement.
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