Sharma and Towse, Office of Health Economics April 2011.
Outlines a model that assess the push, pull and hybrid approaches that could be applied to encourage innovation of antimicrobials and suggests the size of various incentives needed to make antibiotic R&D as attractive to developers as are other therapeutic drug classes.
PR Newswire October 19, 2009.
Extrapolating the 2009 Roberts study [CID vol. 49 no. 8 October 15, 2009 1175-1184.) see below] nation-wide, the authors concluded antibiotic-resistant infections cost the U.S. health care system in excess of $20 billion annually as well as more than $35 billion in societal costs and more than 8 million additional days spent in the hospital.
Roberts et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases vol. 49 no. 8 October 15, 2009 1175-1184.
A recent analysis of antibiotic-resistant infection data from Chicago Cook County Hospital showed that the direct and indirect economic costs of antibiotic resistance are enormously high in terms of dollars and length of hospital stays.
Mossialos et al., London School of Economics & Political Science September 17, 2009.
Professor Elias Mossialos, with LSE Health, presented a report commissioned by the Swedish government on the challenges concerning antibiotic resistance.
ECDC/EMEA Joint Technical Report, September 17, 2009.
The technical report on the lack of new antibacterials from the European Medicines Agency (EM)-European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in collaboration with ReAct.
Klevens et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases vol. 42 no. 3 February 1, 2006 389-391.
IDSA Global Health on Antimicrobial Resistance (PDF)
The development of medicines that control bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi ushered in the era of modern medicine over the last century. The new antimicrobial drugs not only curbed the toll of infectious diseases, but by improving the safety of surgery, hospital procedures and treatment for cancers, enabled medical care to which millions of people worldwide have owed their lives and longevity. Starting with the 1928 discovery of penicillin, advances in antibiotics led to an array of medicines that a 1975 New York Academy of Medicine summary described as “an embarrassment” of choices.
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