On this page:
|Vaccine Platform||Vaccine||Authorization Status||Technology||Administration||Published Efficacy Data|
|mRNA||Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2||Authorized in US||mRNA encoding prefusion stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein||2 IM doses, 21 days apart||Phase 3 and post-authorization|
|Authorized in US||mRNA encoding prefusion stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with a transmembrane anchor and an intact S1–S2 cleavage site||2 IM doses, 28 days apart||Phase 3 and post-authorization|
|Viral Vector||Johnson & Johnson/Janssen
|Authorized in US||Replication-incompetent human adenovirus 26 encoding full-length prefusion stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein||1 IM dose||Phase 3|
|Viral Vector||University of Oxford and AstraZeneca
|Not authorized in US||Replication-incompetent chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAdY25) encoding full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with a tissue plasminogen activator leader sequence||2 IM doses, 4-12 wks apart||Phase 3 and post-authorization|
|Viral Vector||Gamaleya Research Institute
|Not authorized in US||Replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 and adenovirus 26 encoding full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (heterologous prime-boost)||2 IM doses, 21 days apart||Phase 3|
|Not authorized in US||Synthetic nanoparticle coated with full-length prefusion stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein trimers with Matrix-M1 (saponin-based) adjuvant||2 IM doses, 21 days apart|
Vaccination to prevent disease was first conceptualized in the late 18th century, and by the early 20th century vaccines for diseases including tuberculosis, yellow fever, and influenza had been developed (Plotkin, 2014). By 1980, vaccination had been used to eradicate smallpox globally — one of only two infectious diseases to date to be eliminated from the environment. Numerous vaccines are responsible for preventing millions of illnesses annually (Pardi, 2018).
Conventional vaccine types include the following:
- Live-attenuated vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, contain attenuated (weakened) forms of an organism that causes a disease. This attenuated organism acts as an antigen and stimulates the body to create a robust antibody response.
- Inactivated vaccines, including most influenza vaccines, contain a killed version of an organism that causes a disease. This killed form acts as an antigen and stimulates the body to create an antibody response.
- Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines, such as pneumococcal vaccines, contain components of an organism which act as antigens and stimulate an antibody response. They do not contain the organism itself.
- Toxoid vaccines, such as tetanus vaccine, contain a toxin made by an organism that causes a disease. The toxin acts as an antigen and stimulates an antibody response to specific parts of the organism, rather than the whole organism.
While conventional vaccines are critical in controlling disease, limitations include the time and materials required for production, difficulty with large-scale deployment and a reliance on the adaptive instead of innate immune response (which some infections may evade) (Pardi, 2018).